How Migraines Impact Men & Women Differently

Migraines are a common and debilitating neurological disorder that affects millions of people worldwide. However, research has shown that migraines can have different manifestations and impacts on men and women. In this article, we will explore the gender differences in migraines, from their prevalence and symptoms to potential causes and treatment options.

Gender and Migraine Prevalence

Migraines are not equally prevalent in men and women. In fact, studies have proven that women are more likely to experience migraines than men. According to the Migraine Research Foundation, approximately 28 million Americans suffer from migraines, and 85% of them are women. This stark difference in prevalence has sparked interest in understanding the gender-specific aspects of this condition.

Hormonal Influence

One of the leading explanations for the gender disparity in migraine prevalence is hormonal influence. Estrogen, a hormone predominantly found in higher levels in women, appears to play a significant role in migraine development. Fluctuations in estrogen levels during a woman’s menstrual cycle, pregnancy, and menopause can trigger or worsen migraines.

Menstrual Migraines: Many women experience migraines around their menstrual periods, known as menstrual migraines. The drop in estrogen levels just before menstruation is believed to be a trigger for these migraines.

Pregnancy and Migraines: Interestingly, some women experience relief from migraines during pregnancy when estrogen levels are high and stable. However, others may continue to have migraines or even develop them for the first time during pregnancy.

Menopause: Menopausal women may also notice changes in their migraine patterns. While some find relief as estrogen levels decline, others may experience worsening or new-onset migraines during this transition.

Symptom Variations

In addition to differences in prevalence, there are also variations in migraine symptoms between men and women. Some studies have suggested that women are more likely to experience certain migraine symptoms, such as aura—a visual disturbance that can precede or accompany a migraine attack. Men, on the other hand, may be more likely to experience “silent migraines,” which lack the headache but include other typical migraine symptoms. Regardless of the specific symptoms, migraines can be equally debilitating for both men and women.

Treatment Considerations

Managing migraines often involves a combination of lifestyle modifications and medication. However, the treatment approach may need to be tailored to the individual’s gender due to the hormonal factors at play.

For women experiencing menstrual migraines, treatment strategies may include hormonal therapies or medications that specifically target estrogen fluctuations. Conversely, men who experience migraines with aura may benefit from medications that address the neurological aspects of their condition.

Preventive measures such as identifying triggers, maintaining a consistent sleep schedule, managing stress, and dietary changes can be effective for both men and women with migraines. However, the importance of a personalized treatment plan cannot be overstated.


Migraines are a complex and multifaceted neurological disorder that affects both men and women. While the overall prevalence is higher in women, the gender differences in migraines go beyond sheer numbers. Hormonal factors, symptom variations, and emotional impact all play a role in how migraines affect individuals differently based on their gender.

The Will Erwin Headache Research Foundation was founded on the mission to find a cure for debilitating headaches. Our team is dedicated to progressing headache research and studies and to providing information to sufferers around the world. You can be part of the future of headache research when you contribute.